Vacuole

biology
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Vacuole, in biology, a space within a cell that is empty of cytoplasm, lined with a membrane, and filled with fluid. Especially in protozoa (single-celled eukaryotic organisms), vacuoles are essential cytoplasmic organs (organelles), performing functions such as storage, ingestion, digestion, excretion, and expulsion of excess water. The large central vacuoles often found in plant cells enable them to attain a large size without accumulating the bulk that would make metabolism difficult. Potent secondary metabolites, such as tannins or various biological pigments, are also sequestered in the vacuoles in plants, fungi, algae, and certain other organisms to protect the cell from self-toxicity.

Mechanism of cellular autophagy, illustration for Nobel Prize Award in Medicine 2016. 3D illustration showing fusion of lysosome with autophagosome containing microbes and molecules.
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The Editors of Encyclopaedia BritannicaThis article was most recently revised and updated by Melissa Petruzzello, Assistant Editor.
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