Question: What city was the site of the 900-day siege during World War II?
Answer: The “900-day siege” of Leningrad, the prolonged siege of the Soviet city (today St. Petersburg, Russia) by German and Finnish armed forces during World War II, actually lasted 872 days (September 8, 1941 to January 27, 1944).
Question: Which spy worked for Nazi Germany while employed as valet to the British ambassador to neutral Turkey?
Answer: During World War II, the spy known as Cicero (Elyesa Bazna) worked for Nazi Germany while he was employed as valet to Sir Hughe Montgomery Knatchbull-Hugessen, the British ambassador to neutral Turkey. Cicero photographed secret documents from the embassy safe and turned the films over to former German chancellor Franz von Papen, at that time German ambassador in Ankara.
Question: Which U.S. president won the Navy and Marine Corps Medal for his heroism during World War II?
Answer: In 1941 John F. Kennedy joined the U.S. Navy and two years later was sent to the South Pacific. Commanding a patrol torpedo (PT) boat, he was gravely injured when a Japanese destroyer sank it in the Solomon Islands. Marooned far behind enemy lines, he led his men back to safety and was awarded the Navy and Marine Corps Medal for heroism.
Question: What site became the symbol of the first stage of Nazi killing during the Holocaust?
Answer: Babi Yar, a large ravine in Ukraine, became the symbol of the first stage of killing during the Holocaust. On September 29 and 30, 1941, nearly 34,000 Jews were marched in small groups to the outskirts of the city and machine-gunned into the ravine, which was immediately covered over, with some of the victims still alive. Over the next two years the mass grave swelled with thousands of other victims.
Question: Which religious institution in Germany led the opposition to the Nazis?
Answer: The Confessing Church, a loose association of churchmen led by Martin Niemöller and others, emerged to stand for (or “confess”) the traditional teaching of the church. This opposition prompted the Nazis to withdraw their support from the German Christians by the mid-1930s.
Question: Which British prime minister is identified with initiating the policy of “appeasement” toward Germany in the period immediately preceding World War II?
Answer: Neville Chamberlain was the British prime minister from May 28, 1937, to May 10, 1940, and is identified with the policy of appeasement toward Germany. On three occasions in September 1938, Chamberlain went to Germany in efforts to prevent the outbreak of a general European war over Adolf Hitler’s demand that Czechoslovakia cede the Sudetenland to Germany. By the Munich Agreement of September 30, he and Premier Édouard Daladier of France granted almost all of Hitler’s demands and left Czechoslovakia defenseless. Chamberlain returned to England a popular hero, speaking of “peace with honour” and “peace in our time.”
Question: At which World War II conference did Allied leaders agree to demand unconditional surrender from the Axis powers of Germany, Italy, and Japan?
Answer: The Casablanca Conference, held at Casablanca, Morocco (January 12–23, 1943), was a meeting during World War II between U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and their respective military chiefs and aides, who planned future global military strategy for the Western Allies. The work of the conference was primarily military: deciding on the invasion of Sicily (after completion of the North African campaign), apportioning forces for the Pacific theatre and outlining major lines of attack in the Far East, and agreeing on the concentrated bombing of Germany. However, Roosevelt and Churchill also found time to discuss other topics, most important of which was a demand an “unconditional surrender” from Germany, Italy, and Japan.
Question: Which of these laws contributed to the Holocaust?
Answer: The Nürnberg Laws, two measures depriving Jews of rights, were designed by Adolf Hitler and approved by the Nazi Party at a convention in Nürnberg on September 15, 1935. These measures were among the first of the racist Nazi laws that culminated in the Holocaust.
Question: What is the name of the last major German offensive on the Western Front in World War II?
Answer: The Battle of the Bulge, which took place from December 16, 1944, to January 16, 1945, was the last major German offensive on the Western Front during World War II. It was an unsuccessful attempt to push the Allies back from German home territory.
Question: Which international accord established the legal foundation for the Nürnberg trials of Nazi war criminals?
Answer: At the conclusion of World War II, representatives of the United States, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, and the provisional government of France signed the London Agreement, which provided for an international military tribunal to try major Axis war criminals whose offenses did not take place in specific geographic locations. This agreement established the legal foundation for the Nürnberg trials.